https://www.siawi.org/spip.php?article29990, 4 November 2022.
Presentation at the Celebrating Dissent 22 conference, in Cologne, Germany.
August 21, 2022.
The original definition of secularism (laïcité) dates from the French Revolution; it establishes in no uncertain terms the total separation between Church and State. In other words, the political power of the Catholic Church over the Kingdom of France has been dismantled by the 1789 Revolution: the State, from then on, is only accountable to its citizens and to no divine order – as interpreted by non-elected, self-appointed, reactionary clerics.